A 3-way catalytic (TWC) converter is used on most newer cars and trucks in order to control the exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The catalyst within the converter promotes a chemical reaction which oxidizes the HC and the CO that is present in the exhaust gas. This process will convert the HC and the CO into a water vapor and CO, and will reduce the NOx, converting the NOx into nitrogen.
P0036 - P0056 Heated oxygen sensors (HO2S) are used for fuel control and post catalyst monitoring. Each HO2S compares the oxygen content of the surrounding air with the oxygen content in the exhaust stream. The HO2S must reach operating temperature to provide an accurate voltage signal. A heating element inside the HO2S minimizes the time required for the sensor to reach operating temperature.